Suicide Sociological Perspective
In suicide sociological perspective, The act of suicide refers to taking one’s own life through a more or less violent means. It is aggression turning inside. Suicides are the extreme outcomes of frustration. Frustration in different spheres of life, desperation and loneliness, the feeling of isolation, failure in examination, unemployment, job dissatisfaction, and frustration in love or in any sphere of life are main reasons of suicide in younger age groups.
Every hour one student commits suicide in India, with about 28 such suicides reported every day, according to data compiled by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). The NCRB data shows that 10,159 students died by suicide in 2018, an increase from 9,905 in 2017, and 9,478 in 2016.
Maharashtra had the highest number of student suicides in 2018 with 1,448 — almost 4 suicides every day — followed by Tamil Nadu with 953 and Madhya Pradesh with 862. According to a 2012 Lancet report, suicide rates in India are highest in the 15-29 age group — the youth population. The report says that among men, 40% suicides are by individuals age of 15-29, while for women it was almost 60%.
Le Suicide by French founding sociologist says in his book that suicide is a classic text in sociology that is widely teach to psychology students Publish in 1897. The book was the first to present a sociological study of suicide, and its conclusion that suicide can have origins in social causes rather than just being due to individual temperament was groundbreaking at the time.
Types of suicide – according to Durkheim
- Anomic suicide is an extreme response by a person who experiences anomie, a sense of disconnection from society and a feeling of not belonging resulting from weakened social cohesion. Anomie occurs during periods of serious social, economic, or political upheaval, which result in quick and extreme changes to society and everyday life. In such circumstances, a person might feel so confused and disconnected that they choose to commit suicide.
- Altruistic suicide is often a result of excessive regulation of individuals by social forces such that a person may be move to kill themselves for the benefit of a cause or for society at large. An example is someone who commits suicide for the sake of a religious or political cause, such as the infamous Japanese Kamikaze pilots of World War II, or the hijackers that crashed the airplanes into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania in 2001. In such social circumstances, people are so strongly integrate into social expectations and society itself that they will kill themselves in an effort to achieve collective goals.
- Egoistic suicide is a profound response executed by people who feel totally detached from society. Ordinarily, people are integrated into society by work roles, ties to family and community, and other social bonds. When these bonds are weakened through retirement or loss of family and friends, the likelihood of egoistic suicide increases. Elderly people, who suffer these losses most profoundly, are highly susceptible to egoistic suicide.
- Fatalistic suicide occurs under conditions of extreme social regulation resulting in oppressive conditions and a denial of the self and of agency. In such a situation a person may elect to die rather than continue enduring the oppressive conditions, such as the case of suicide among prisoners.
- most of COVID patient commit suicide due to fear of tested positive,& social rejection.
- Farmer suicide due to income loss ,nationwide lockdown leading them to left with poverty.
- Bollywood actor’s Sushant Singh Rajput commit suicide-depression & anxiety issue.
- Board exam results-students commit suicide due to not completing role expectations create role conflict.
- Like in blue whale game people are manipulated by someone to take their life.
- In bureaucracy also people unable to handle pressure ,some also face harassment due to which they consider easy to take their life instead of fighting from odd. E.g. PCS officer in up hang herself.
- Moreover, its incidence is greater in urban than in rural areas, probably because of the increasing needs of the civilised society and inability to fulfill these needs.
More women attempt suicide while more men commit suicide. Suicide rates vary considerably with age. More blacks than whites commit suicide. Married people have lower suicidal rates than their unmarried counterparts.
Freud in his book “Civilisation and Discontents” has mentioned that modern civilisation plays a crucial role in increasing terribly the frustration and mental agony of people. Sex taboos, social and cultural taboos stand in the way of satisfaction of many desires.
Gap between level of aspiration and achievement, strong competition, social and culture obstacles in marriage particularly are some of the major causes of suicide in India. As Shneidman (1969) has rightly commented, “The person who commits suicide puts his psychological skeleton in the survivor’s emotional closet”.
Anxiety and stress arises in course of life. Interpersonal discord, and emotional crisis relating to it, self devaluation, feeling of inadequacy and inferiority, lack of meaning and hope in life and several other aversive and unhappy events in life lead one to commit suicide.There is increase rate in suicide due to anxiety,stress trauma, social rejection,isolation,increase in competition, unemployment & other Socio cultural factor so its time to take a strong measure to tackle this problem.It is held that effective prevention of suicide depends upon three factors:
- Accurate assessment of suicide potential.
- Guidelines about the suicide victim.
- Availability of trained personnel’s to deal with dangerously suicidal persons.
Ministry of Human Resource & development came up with a portal name manodarpan to handle this issue of stress anxiety by taking counselling. This is a step in right direction. Consoling, sympathising, giving him Affection and assuring him that his emotional distress will definitely help in the prevention of suicide.
A deject person should be give timely encouragement by both parents and teachers. It’s in order to make up with the worst consequences of frustration. Parents and teachers should not directly condemn or rebuke.But instead solve his or her problems in a most tactful way. We should Open as many suicide prevention centre to make them feel alive in difficult situations.