Post Mauryan art
- Post Mauryan Art was climax of sculpture. While Mauryan period was climax of pillar and stupa.
- 3 important development at this phase was
Caves of Post Mauryan age
- Now there were two type of caves in post Mauryan age viz
- Vihar – residence of monks.
- Chaitya- Prayer hall of the monks.
- Ajanta have 29 caves, in which 4 chaitya and 25 Vihar.
- Famous caves of that period
- In chaitya- Karele chaitya
- In Vihar – Nasik Vihar.
- its largest chaitya in India.
- It have lion pillar in front of the chaitya griha (only found in Karle and Kanheri).
- Inside the chaitya, there is stupa which is of cylindrical drum shape.
Vihar of Nasik
- These Vihar also know as ‘Panduleni’.
- Its group of 24 caves.
- These are Hinayana Buddhism cave.
- Most cave are Vihar except 18th cave which is chaitya.
- Some caves are intricately connected with other cave through stone cut ladders.
- These Vihar also contain sculpture.
- The caves were called ‘pundru’ which in Pali language mean as ” Yellow ochre colour”.
Stupa of post Mauryan age
- In post Mauryan period enlarged stupas found compared to Mauryan period.
- Gateway (Torana) are more decorative than Mauryan period.
Sculpture of Post Mauryan age
- Sculptures reached at its climax on this period.
- Buddha never represented in human form before the Christian Era.
- The adherents of Buddhist faith! Followed the Hinayana path in means of attaining salvation.
- They don’t represent Buddha as the human because they believe that the Buddha is so abstract. That’s why they represent Buddha on the symbol forms like lotus, elephant, wheel of law, foot prints etc.
- The influence of Hinduism on Buddhism can be seen as that or made Buddhist to worship their personal god.
Beginning of Human representation on Buddha
- After the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC, the Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Kushan kings rule over the north west territories. Under their patronage emerged a different style of sculpture known as Greeco-Roman, Buddhist or Gandhar art.
- It was combination of Greek and Roman technique and modified according to the requirement of India.
- It’s also known as Gandhar art.
- Indian or Hinduism influence was that, Buddha is showing as sitting in Yogi posture.
- Outsider influence.
- Grey sand stone used in this style.
- This style is completely Buddhist.
- Prevailed inKushans period .
- Buddha is shown as spiritual Buddha.
- I gave reminds of Apollo.
- Bearded, Mushtaq, eyes half closed porpumurance, wavy hairs, large ears and yogi posture.( this shows perfect man anatomy which is Hinduism influence).
- Indigenous art.
- Spotted red sand stone is mainly used.
- Shows all 3 religions.
- Prevailed in Kushaan period.
- It founds around uttar pradesh.
- Buddha is shown as delighted Buddha.
- Masculine, grace on the face, energetic body and tight dress and seated on the padmasana.
- Indigenous art.
- White marble is used In this art.
- Dominated by Buddhism.
- Prevailed in satvahana period.
- It founds around Krishna, Godavari lower valley.
- It’s narrative art.
- It shows depicting theme of Jatakas.
Contribution of Gandhar art
- Evolution of beautiful images of Buddha and Bodhisatva.
- Executed in black stone and modelled on the characteristics Indo-Greeko-Roman-Pantheon.
- Tallest rock cut statue of lord Buddha at Bamiyan Afghanistan (constructed around 3-4 AD and destroyed by Taliban).
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