- According to shilpashastr 3 styles of temple making along with geographical distribution of each.
- Nagara style in Northern region.
- Dravid style of southern region.
- Vesara style is in between Vindhyas and the Krishna.
- Crucified ground plane.
- square and rectangular temple.
- There is garbhgrih too.
- Panchatayan style is used here.
- Absence of tank ( its main feature of Dravidian style of temple architecture).
- Nagara style of temples have so much height.
- This style is develop only regional areas.
- In this style shikhar mainly curving inwards.
Three sub-schools of Nagara style
- Odisha school.
- Chandela/ Khujrao school.
- Solanki/ Maru Gurjar school.
- They make big temples because they believe that god lives in big houses.
- Shikhar Called here Deul.
- Mandap is known as Jagmohan.
- Its very much similar to Nagara style.
- Erotic sculpture are found in this school.
- E.g. Lingraja temple, Konark temple, Rajarani temple etc.
About Lingaraj Temple
Lingaraj temple was built in 11th century AD by King Jajati Keshari of Somavanshi dynasty with later additions by Ganga dynasty rulers. Its Deul (tower) rises to a height of 180 feet and marks the culmination of the temple architecture in Bhubaneswar which was the cradle of the Kalinga School of Temple Architecture. The temple can broadly be divided into 4 main halls viz The Garba Griha (Sanctum Sanctorum), the Yajana Mandapa (the hall for prayers) the Natya Mandapa (dance and music hall) and the Bhoga Mandapa (where devotees can have the prasad/offering of the Lord). The carvings depicting chores of daily life, the activity centres, apart from being a place of worship makes the temple a place for social and cultural gathering. Lingaraj is refer to as “Swayambhu” – (self-originated Shivling) and the Shivling is known as Hari Hara. It signifies the syncretisation of Shaivism and Vaishnavism sects in Odisha. The other attraction of the temple is the Bindusagar Lake, locates in the north side of the temple. Shivaratri festival is the major festival celebrated in the temple. The temple compound is not open to non-Hindus, but there is a viewing platform beside the wall offering a good view of the main exteriors. This was originally erected for a visit by Viceroy Lord Curzon.
Kalinga school of temple architecture
• Kaḷinga architectural style is also a sub-style of Nagara architecture, flourished in the ancient Kalinga region – present state of Odisha, West Bengal and northern Andhra Pradesh.
• In this, Shikhara (called deul in Odisha) is almost vertical before it curves near the top.
• Shikhara is preceded by a mandapa (called Jagmohan or ‘dance pavilion’ in Odisha).
• The style consists of three distinct types of temples: Rekha Deula, Pidha Deula and Khakhara Deula.
• The Rekha Deula and Khakhara Deula houses the sanctum sanctorum while the Pidha Deula constitutes outer dancing and offering halls. • Examples of Kalinga architecture: Rajarani temple (Bhubaneshwar); Jagganath Temple, Puri.
Chandela/ Khujrao school
- Carving on both interior and exterior wall.
- Temple has main 3 elements viz
3. Erotic themes.
4. E.g. Kandaria Mahadeo temple.
Solanki/ Maru Gurjar school
- It’s branch of later Chalukya.
- it has influence of Khujrao school.
- Ceiling’s decoration was so good.
- Arch like effect is shown but there is no use of arch.
- Grey to black basaltic rock is used,
- Carving on the walls but there is no carving on the sanctum sanctorum.
- These mostly Jain temples.
- E.g. Dilwara temple, Tejpala temple etc.
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