Mauryan period of art UPSC
Mauryan period art UPSC can be sub divide into two kinds.
- Court art- which was state initiative. At that time most of the court art consist stupa and pillar.
- Popular art- Popular art at that time was individual art and it mainly consist sculpture, pottery and caves.
- Mauryan arts time period was 4th to 3rd century bc.
- Ashoka was the first Mauryan king who think In stone.
Pillars of Mauryan period Art UPSC
- In Mauryan period art, mainly pillars were monolithic.
- Pillars are on sacred sites.
- The height of the pillars are 30-40 feet and they are crown by animal figures.
- Pillars are inscribe with Buddhist concept of morality or Dhamma.
Purpose of pillars of Mauryan period art UPSC
- Pillars were mainly the symbol of the state.
- They are also use to declare victory.
- Pillars also used for spread of moral ideas or Dhamma.
Different type of capitals
- Lotus column (bell shaped)
- Lotus column (bud shaped)
- Papyrus column (bell shaped)
- Papyrus column ( bud shaped)
Features of Mauryan period art Pillars
- Mauryan pillars were mainly monolithic unlike the achaemenian type of pillar.
- Uniformity in all the pillars of Mauryan art.
- Chunar sandstone used for pillar making.
- Use of animal to decorate the pillar or to give the some moral message.
- Pillar at that time are highly polish which shows Iranian influence.
- Different type of abacus use like round, circular etc.
- Bell shaped capital shows Achaemenian influence.
- Sarnath pillar was most remarkable pillar of that time.
- Highly polished and lion capital used on it. ( which is also Government of India’s emblem.
- In lion emblem 4 lions represent cardinal direction.
- Round abacus is used with four Dharma chakra or wheel of law.
- Elephant, bull, Horse and lion are depicted on the abacus, all are well polished.
- Lion shows the great power and dignity.
- Animal on the abacus make us know that they were animal friendly.
Bull capital Rampurva Bihar
- It construction is of around 3rd century bc.
- its mixture of Indian and Persian elements.
- it have lotus capital.
- motifs on the abacus are beautiful.
- Decorative elements like rosette, palmetto and acanthus ornament used in which none of the Indian.
- its called as masterpiece of Indian crafts man.
Rock cut Elephant Dhauli Odisha
- It’s locate at place where Kalinga war happen.
- In this major edicts of Ashoka engraved.
- Its a Buddhist Sculpture.
- Making of stupa start on Vedic period.
- it flourished on Mauryan period.
- It’s kind of funeral mound. They use to make stupas over the relics of the Buddha.
- Originally 9 stupas are construct. 8 stupas had Buddha’s relics and 9th one have the vessel in which the relics were.
- Stupa is a hemispherical dome with Buddha relics inside.
- Initially the size of stupa was small.
- Inside the stupa, simple bricks use while in the making of outside gate burnt bricks use with lime coating.
- Jatakas stories and lion, bull, Elephant and lotus are carve on the stupa.
- It’s size is small.
- It have a wooden umbrella which represents the royalty and the dignity.
- It came under Buddhist faith through the Kushan of mathura.
- Marbles are used instead of Burnt bricks.
- Its inner side have engraving of Buddha’s life.
- Later it was transformed from Hinayana to mahayan.
Popular arts of Mauryan phase.
- Real beginning of rock cut architecture was started from this phase.
- Mauryan caves were mainly Vihar.
- Post Mauryan caves were chaitya.
- Chandragupta Maurya was influenced by Jainism that’s why he create caves in Aajivika sect.
- Artistic gateway.
- Polishing inside the caves
– 7 Sister caves – 4cave of barabar caves and 3 caves of Nagarjuna cave also from that period.
– Vihar was used as a rest place for Monks.
- Yaksh and Yakshini sculpture which came from folk religion.( shows local religion influence on Buddhism).
- Yaksh and Yakshini figure related to three religion viz.
Hinduism- reference in Tamil script Silapdigaram.
Buddhism- On the wall of stupa, the depiction of Yaksh and Yakshini.
Jainism- In the Jain scripts every teerthankar found to be associated with one Yakshini.
- Northern black polished wear was of this period.
- Maturity and climax in pottery making was in this period.
- Some silver pottery were also found.
- purpose of silver pottery was as a luxury wear.
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