Why Israel Palestine conflict UPSC in news?
The US President Donald Trump unveiled his Middle East peace plan, Peace to Prosperity: A Vision to Improve the Lives of the Palestinian and Israeli People aimed at solving the Israel Palestine conflict UPSC.
About Israel-Palestine conflict UPSC
- In 1917, during World War I, the British capture Palestine from the Ottoman Empire after the Sykes-Picot Agreement with France.
- Later in the Balfour Declaration, Britain pledged establishment of Palestine as national home for Jews.
- During World War II, over 3 lakh Jews migrate & resettle in Palestine and demands a new country. This led to fight between Arabs and Jews i.e. Israel Palestine conflict.
- In 1947 the United Nations votes to split the Palestine between Arabs and Jews.
- The Jewish residents accepted the agreement and declared independence of Israel in 1948 while Arabs rejected the agreement.
- Consequently, the Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria declared war on Israel.
- Israel won the war and expanded its territory reducing Palestine to just Gaza strip and West bank & forcing lakhs of Palestinians to flee from Israel.
- It was the beginning of this Palestine refugee crisis which ultimately lead to the creation of PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) in 1964.
- In June, 1967 Six day war was fought between Israel and neighboring Arab countries. During this, Israel captured Gaza strip, Sinai peninsula from Egypt, West bank from Jordan and Golan heights from Syria.
- UN Security Council then adopted a resolution for ‘Land for peace’ and it mandates that Israel should return the capture areas back to the defeated nations.
- In the light of Israel’s reluctance to return the capture territories. another Arab-Israeli war erupt in 1973 (Yom Kippur war) in which Israel suffer some setbacks.
- This started the way for the subsequent peace process.
- In 1978, Israel and Egypt sign Camp David Accord to establish peace in the region and accordingly Israel return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in 1982. This however fail to bring about peace and stability in the region.
- In 1987, Hamas (Islamic Militant group) for the liberation of Palestine through Jihad formed. It refuse to recognize Israel as a country.
- In 1993, with the mediation of the US and Russia, PLO signs OSLO Accord with the Israel. Which provides for Palestinian interim self govt to rule over West bank and Gaza strip however Israel backtrack and refuse to consider Palestine a free country .
- In 2011 Palestine launched a diplomatic campaign to gain membership in the UN for the state of Palestine. Same year, it was admit in UNESCO as a full member, however the Palestinian struggle for independent nation is still going on.
What the Trump’s Peace Plan suggested for Israel Palestine conflict?
Status of Jerusalem:
Jerusalem will be the sovereign capital of Israel. Capital of Palestine should be in the section of East Jerusalem located in all areas east and north of the existing security barrier, could be named Al Quds or another name as determined by the State of Palestine.
Map delineates what the potential Israeli and Palestinian state borders would be. The plan gives the Israelis and Palestinians four years to accept these borders.
$50 billion investment fund to boost the Palestinian and neighbouring Arab state economies. The United States will work with the Palestinian Authority to identify economic projects for Al Quds and incorporate such projects into Peace to Prosperity.
Upon signing the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreement, the State of Israel will maintain overriding security responsibility for the State of Palestine. And also with the aspiration that the Palestinians will be responsible for as much of their internal security as possible, subject to the provisions of this Vision. The United States will help support the State of Palestine to meet and maintain the Security Criteria.
The State of Israel will allow the State of Palestine to use and manage earmarked facilities at both the Haifa and Ashdod ports.
Dismantling of Hamas:
Hamas currently governs Gaza, so removing it would significantly change the coastal strip.
What makes Jerusalem so important?
- Jerusalem is situated on the border between Israel and the West Bank. It is home to some of the holiest sites in both Judaism and Islam, and so both Israel and Palestine want to make it their capital.
- It is an Important pilgrimage for Christians as well whose holiest Church of Sepulcher is located here.
- The Church contains two important sites. one where Jesus was crucified. And the other being Jesus’ empty tomb where he said to have been buried.
- It also hosts holiest site of Islam, dome of the rock, which is one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture.
- It is believe that Prophet Mohamad’s night journey to the heaven starts from here.
- The western wall or the Buraq wall is the ancient limestone wall in this city. It is consider holy due to its connection to the temple mount.
- Israeli Jews aren’t allow to pray in the temple mount area while Jordan control it. Because of the temple mount entry restrictions, the wall is the holiest place where the Jews are permitted to pray.
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Israel Palestine conflict upsc timeline in detail
A timeline of the conflict which has its roots in the late 19th century.
A Jewish homeland promised
In 1917, during World War I, the British seize Palestine from the Ottomans and, in the Balfour Declaration of November 2, promise the Jews a “national home” there. Opposition from the Palestinians first start at a congress in Jerusalem in 1919. In 1922, the League of Nations sets out the responsibility of a British mandate in Palestine, including securing “establishment of the Jewish national home”, the future Israel.
Britain crushes the great Arab revolt in Palestine of 1936-1939.
Palestine is partition into Jewish and Arab states under United Nations Resolution 181, approve in November 1947. Jerusalem is come under international control. In the rupture, the West Bank including east Jerusalem goes to Jordan and the Gaza Strip to Egypt. The state of Israel is finally create on May 14, 1948, provoking an eight-month war with Arab states. More than 400 Palestinian villages are raze by Israeli forces and around 760,000 Palestinian refugees run to the West Bank, Gaza and neighbouring Arab countries.
The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) is create in 1964.
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