Indian music

The origin of Indian music is from Samaveda. Samaveda’s upveda is Gandharveda. Narad was the first person who heard message from the god. In which, Naad is suppose to be basis of all creation. Bharata muni who created the Natya shastra contains several chapters of music. He defines the music as Nritya, Gyan and vaadan.

Indian music

Pillars of Indian music

Pillars of Indian music are

  1. Swara.
  2. Raga.
  3. Taal.


Sawara are also known as pitch or tone. These are also contains notes. According to Hindu mythology The primitive sound AUM or OM gave birth to Swara. 7 swara are prevail in Indian music which are SA (Sadcha), RE (Rishab), GA (gandhar), MA (Madhyam), PA (Pancham), DHA (Dhaiwat) and also NI (Nishad). In English these are Do-Re-Mi-Fa-So-La-Ti.



Raga forms the basis of melody in Hindustani music. These are the combination of swara. In every raga, there are at least 5 swara. Hence there are 3 kinds of Raga viz

  1. Audava raga which contains 5 swara.
  2. Shadava raga which contains 6 swara.
  3. and also sham purna raga which contains all 7 swara.

In Hindustani music, there are 6 principle Raga which are time specific, season specific and also mood specific. Which are describe in the picture below.

Raga season time . Indian music


Taal are the basis of rhythm. These are the arrangements of bits on the circular manner. There are total 32 kinds of taal. Range of the bit of the tall is 3 bit to 108 bits. Three taal contains 16 bits.

To know more about art and culture of india for upsc click here

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