Timeline of Gupta age architecture was 4-6 AD.
- Art, science and literature flourished greatly during Gupta age.
- The iconographic canons of Buddhism, Jainism and Brahmanical divinities were perfected and standardised.
Two climax in Gupta age architecture
1. Cave Architecture.
2. Temple Architecture.
- Sculpture of Gupta age architecture
1. Sarnath school of sculpture.
- Gupta age architecture also know as Golden period of architecture and sculpture.
- state initiated for the art and culture in Gupta age. That’s why know as golden period of art and architecture.
Some facts about Gupta dynasty
- Gupta kings were Brahmanical in religion.
- They showed tolerance towards Buddhism and Jainism.
- They also din development of Hinduism too.
- In the Gupta age mainly 3 deity of Hinduism was worshiped viz Vishnu (Northern and central India ), Shiva (Southern India), Shakti (Bengal and Eastern India, Malabar region of Kerala).
- Earliest rock cut caves made by Ashoka (around 270 bc) and his grandson Dasaratha.
- Early caves excavated On wooden models.
- they were used as new standardised religious meeting place. E.g. Barabar caves, Nagarjuni caves.
- inner walls were finely polished.
- In west Deccan, under Satvahana ruler largest and most famous caves were excavated.
Phases of Cave architecture
Cave architecture on Gupta age have in 3 phases-
- First phase and Earliest phase
- This phase was exclusive related to Buddhism.
- Buddha symbolically shown in this period.
- Major excavations of chaitya and Vihar happened on this period.
- Practised in less permanent material like wood.
- E.g. Karla, Kanheri, Nasik, bhoj and bedsa cave.
2. Second phase 5th to 7th century (Gupta age)
- Elimination of use of timber in this phase.
- introduction of image of Buddha .
- Chaitya remained same while some changes on vihara like housed the image of Buddha.
3. 3rd phase 7th to 10th century
- The number of Hinduism and Jain caves extended.
- The caves was modified according to suitability.
Dravidian cave Architecture
- Dominant feature
- The mandap- open pavilion excavated out of a rock simple columned hall with two or more cells.
- The Ratha- Monolithic shrine carved out of single rock.
Suitability of cave architecture
- Primarily developed in western ghats.
- rock architecture was suited in India because India have plenty Rocky Mountain.
- structure excavated In stones are most durable.
- Near Bhopal M.P.
- Buddhist site.
- more than 700 shelters.
- 2 groups founded there one is Bhimbetka group and other is Lekhajuar group.
- Rock painting dated back to Stone Age era 30000 years ago.
- Near Mumbai.
- Time period 2nd century to 9th century .
- more than 100 caves.
- Belong to first phase Hinayana Buddhism.
- Image of Buddha in chaitya hall suggests later addition.
- Main feature was flights of connecting steps.
- stone seats provided for monks to rest on.
- Situated within the island of Salsette.
- Time period second half of 8th century.
- Belongs to first stage mahayan Buddhist architecture.
- Brahmanical influence in evident.
- Shrine isolated and stand in the centre of cruciform hall with more than one entrance.
- Also known as Montepezir.
- contemporary with jageshwari caves.
- Brahmanical caves to be converted in Christian shrine.
- ruins of old Portuguese church found.
- Franciscan monastery nearby.
- Caves have sculpture of Nataraja, Sadashiv and a splendid sculpture of Ardhnarishwara.
- It contain a largest mandap and a priming garbhgrih.
- Hinayana period.
- main feature is its chaitya and entrance.
- special arrangements of its sun windows.
- 18 cave built for Buddhist nuns around 2 BC.
- last sculpture found here a prince sitting on a elephant and a dancing couple.
- Belongs to later period than bhoja cave and smaller chaitya than Karle but quite similar to it.
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